Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that influence neurons through cell signaling. Specifically, neurotrophins bind to a cell’s receptors to “send a message” to the cells, and thereby cause a reaction or change from the cell. And neurotrophins bind to two classes of receptors: the p75, and the Trk families of Tyrosine kinase receptors. p75 […]

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acetylcholine 3D chemical model


Here are my notes on acetylcholine. Just so you can get an idea of what it does in the brain and in the body, and why it is important for cognition. So acetylcholine (ACh) is one of many kinds of neurotransmitter that are found in the body. To be brief, neurotransmitters are the chemicals released […]

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Norepinephrine, which is also known as noradrenaline, is a monoamine neurotransmitter that also functions as a hormone in the brain and body. Etymology The name “noradrenaline,” is derived by the United Kingdom from the Latin roots meaning “at/alongside the kidneys,”. In the United States, “norepinephrine,” is derived from Greek roots having that same meaning. The […]

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5-HT serotonin neurotransmitter pills on leaf

What is Serotonin? How Does 5-HT Work?

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT),  is a monoamine neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that can be found in the Central Nervous System (CNS), in the blood platelets, and in the Gastrointestinal tract (GI) a.k.a. the stomach. Note that serotonin is manufactured by the body mainly in the GI tract. In fact, 90% of all of a […]

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eyes focused on the dopamine driven prize

How the Dopaminergic Pathways is Key to Motivation & Reward

In this article, I will discuss what Dopamine is, how dopamine is used by the brain, and how the 4 dopaminergic pathways of the brain plays an essential role in motivation and focus. The 4 dopaminergic pathways are so important to motivation that it is also known as the “rewards” pathway. The dopamine in this […]

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